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Shifts in Non-Literary Translation : with focus on EU translation

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

۱٫ Style and shifts…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

۱٫۱٫ Style and how to study it……………………………………………………………………………. 9

۱٫۲٫ Shifts in Translation………………………………………………………………………………… 11

۲٫ Translation in the European Union………………………………………………………………. 14

۲٫۱٫ Language policy of the European Union ……………………………………………………. 14

۲٫۲٫ Problems of EU translation………………………………………………………………………. 15

۲٫۳٫ EU translation from the perspective of translation studies ……………………….. 18

۳٫ An Analysis of Style through Shifts in Literary Translation – method proposed by

Hilkka Pekkanen ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

۳٫۱٫ Objectives of the analysis ………………………………………………………………………… 21

۳٫۲٫ Description of the method………………………………………………………………………… 22

۳٫۳٫ Findings and evaluation of the method………………………………………………………. 24

۴٫ Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

۴٫۱٫ Analysed texts………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

۴٫۱٫۱٫ EU documents………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

۴٫۱٫۲٫ Non-EU documents…………………………………………………………………………… 28

۴٫۲٫ Application of the method and related problems……………………………………… 30

۴٫۲٫۱٫ Types of translation shifts………………………………………………………………….. 32

۴٫۲٫۲٫ Definition of units of comparison……………………………………………………….. 32

۴٫۲٫۳٫ Differences between the English and the Slovak Language……………………. 33

۴٫۳٫ Illustration of the method……………………………………………………………………….. 37

۵٫ Categories of Optional Shifts………………………………………………………………………. 43

۵

۵٫۱٫ Expansion shifts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 45

۵٫۲٫ Contraction shifts ……………………………………………………………………………………. 47

۵٫۳٫ Shifts in order…………………………………………………………………………………………. 50

۵٫۴٫ Miscellaneous shifts………………………………………………………………………………… 51

۶٫ Analysis and Its Findings…………………………………………………………………………….. 54

۶٫۱٫ General results for respective extracts …………………………………………………….. 54

۶٫۲٫ Results for respective categories……………………………………………………………… 61

۶٫۲٫۱٫ Expansion shifts ……………………………………………………………………………….. 61

۶٫۲٫۲٫ Contraction shifts ……………………………………………………………………………… 64

۶٫۲٫۳٫ Shifts in order…………………………………………………………………………………… 66

۶٫۲٫۴٫ Miscellaneous shifts………………………………………………………………………….. 67

۶٫۳٫ Summary of the findings………………………………………………………………………… 68

۶٫۴٫ Evaluation of the method and its problems………………………………………………. 69

CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72

Works Cited …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

Primary sources…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

Secondary Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

Resumé – English ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79

Resumé – Slovak……………………………………………………………………………………………. 80

Appendix A– CD with all the analysed extracts

INTRODUCTION

As suggested by its title, Shifts in Non-Literary Translation, the present thesis deals with

the analysis of certain aspects of non-literary translation, namely translation shifts.

Translation shifts are changes introduced to the target text during the translation process,

whether motivated by objective reasons or subjective preferences of the translator. The

method used in this work to study the translation shifts was proposed by a Finnish scholar

Hilkka Pekkanen in order to study the shifts in literary texts.

The purpose for which Pekkanen (2010) created this method was to study the style of

translators of literary works and to find out whether the ‘translator’s voice’ can be heard in

their translations. The details of her research will be presented later in Chapter 3. Since the

analysis yielded satisfactory results in the domain of literary translations, I would like to try

to apply this method on a different kind of texts in order to examine whether it can work

in other domains too. The first objective of this thesis thus is to test the application of

Pekkanen’s method on non-literary texts, and with a different target language; but at the

same time the thesis aims to study the patterns of shifting within non-literary translation,

especially in the documents translated within the European Union institutions as compared

with other non-literary texts.

EU translation represents a specific category of non-literary translation. One of its

dominant characteristics is that EU translators should try to be as faithful to the original as

possible, to avoid different understanding of respective documents in their different

language versions. Another thing is that the translations are usually not a product of one

individual translator but of a whole group of translators, revisers and consultants.

Therefore it is impossible to speak of the style of an individual. Nevertheless, due to these

and other specific features (discussed in Chapter 2), which distinguish EU translation from

other kinds of non-literary translation, it is possible that certain consistency might be found

in the style of EU translation as such. To study whether such consistency exists or whether

each text bears a thumbprint of individual translators, like in the case of literary works, is

…..thus the second objective of this thesis


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