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The Role of Translation in the Production of International Print News
Three Case Studies in the Language Direction Spanish to English
Abstract
Translation has become a key, albeit hidden factor in the success of international news as a
marketable commodity and one that is not overtly recognised by journalists. However,
despite the important socio-political role played by translation in the global circulation of
news, general principles governing processes of translation in its production have received
scant attention from both Media and Translation Studies researchers
The core to this study is to explore the complex set of processes that occur in the
translation of political news, and to discover what exactly happens at various points in regard
to who translates, what is translated, where it is translated and by whom it is translated. A
further goal is to ascertain the extent to which trained competent translators are involved, as
opposed to linguistically competent journalists, or, if that is not the case, whether indeed the
former should be involved in processes of news translation.
From a translation perspective the study explores the practice of newswriters
complying with common journalistic strategies such as simplification and reframing to suit
the needs of their readership for the maintenance of dominant political or cultural ideologies.
It also examines the extent to which disregard for, and removal from, original context, as well
as over- or under-emphasis of particular terms or phrases actually happens in translated news
texts in the Spanish-English context, and the effect that this may have at the point of
reception by the new readership.
By comparing three sub-corpora of journalistic source and target texts through critical
discourse analysis, and by taking into account translation processes through ethnographic
research in international news outlets, the ultimate goal is to identify the causes that can
trigger textual manipulation. Using three case studies comprising political news events that
were originally reported in Spanish at the source of the events, and which were subsequently
reported in UK and US national newspapers, the study investigates the extent to which
transformations occur through translation in the representation of political news events, how
they might occur, who is involved in the process and what effect any transformations might
have on readers.


Table of Contents

Introduction

۱٫۱ Aims, Rationale and Relevance of this Study 4

۱٫۲ Methodological Framework 7

۱٫۳ Research Questions 9

۱٫۴ Chapter Outline 13

۲٫۱ News Translation in Translation Studies – a Theoretical Framework 17

۲٫۱٫۱ Functionalist Approaches 20

۲٫۱٫۲ The “Cultural Turn” in Translation Studies 24

۲٫۱٫۳ Lefevere’s Theory of Rewriting 27

۲٫۱٫۴ Descriptive Translation Studies 30

۲٫۱٫۵ Defining ‘News Translation’ ۳۴

۲٫۲ Globalisation and the Media 41

۲٫۲٫۱ News Agencies as Agents of Globalisation 41

۲٫۲٫۲ Transparency versus Invisibility 44

۲٫۲٫۳ Homogeneity and Diversity in the Circulation of News 46

۲٫۳ Translation in the Production of International News 51

۲٫۳٫۱ The News Gathering and Dissemination Process 52

۲٫۳٫۲ Translation and the Translator in News Gathering and Dissemination 58

۲٫۳٫۳ The Processes Involved in Textual Transformation 65

۲٫۳٫۴ Regulatory Processes in the Dissemination of International News 68

۲٫۳٫۵ Translator and Translation Competence in Media Contexts 73

۲٫۴ The Discourse of News 83

۲٫۴٫۱ News as a Social Construct 84

۲٫۴٫۲ Ideologies in the Discourse of News Reports 87

Research Methodology 97

۳٫۱ Research Type 98

۳٫۲ Research Models 99

۳٫۳ Data Collection 102

۳٫۴ Case Study as a Research Tool 104

۳٫۵ Field Research 105

۳٫۶ Data Analysis 109

۳٫۷ Translation-Orientated Approaches to Text and Discourse Analysis 109

۳٫۸ What is Critical Discourse Analysis? 114

۳٫۹ Theoretical Objections to the Use of CDA in Translated Texts 122

۳٫۱۰ The Application of CDA in this Study 126

Case Studies and Analysis 133

۴٫۱ Case Study One – Manuel Zelaya’s ‘Referendum’ ۱۳۶

۴٫۲ Case Study Two – Prospecting for Oil in the Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas 167

۴٫۳ Case Study Three – Spain’s Economic Crisis 177

۴٫۴ Conclusions from Case Studies 185

۵ Findings and Conclusions 193

۵٫۱ Main Findings 193

۵٫۲ Challenges and Limitations of the Study 203

۵٫۳ Further Research 206

Bibliography 213

Appendices 231

۱ Questions for Unstructured Interviews – Newspaper and Agency Journalists 231

۲ Questions for Unstructured Interviews – Newspaper Editors 233

۳ Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study One 234

۴ Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study Two 239

۵ Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study Three 240


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