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Figurative language in political discourse and strategies for its interpreting

Table of contents

۱ Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

۲ Theoretical Part ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3

۲٫۱ Political discourse …………………………………………………………………………………. 3

۲٫۱٫۱ Nature of political speech……………………………………………………………………. 3

۲٫۲ Figurative expressions in political discourse ……………………………………………… 4

۲٫۲٫۱ First Inaugural Address of George W. Bush ………………………………………….. 4

۲٫۲٫۲ Inaugural Address passages…………………………………………………………………. 5

۲٫۳ The techniques of interpreting in general …………………………………………………… 12

۲٫۳٫۱ Reformulation………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

۲٫۳٫۲ The salami technique………………………………………………………………………… 14

۲٫۳٫۳ Simplification ………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

۲٫۳٫۴ Generalization………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

۲٫۳٫۵ Explanation……………………………………………………………………………………… 16

۲٫۳٫۶ Summarizing……………………………………………………………………………………. 17

۲٫۴ Rhetoric and types of rhetorical devices…………………………………………………….. 17

۲٫۴٫۱ Rhetoric ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

۲٫۴٫۲ Some rhetorical devices…………………………………………………………………….. 19

۲٫۴٫۲٫۱ Figure ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

۲٫۴٫۲٫۲ Phrase………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20

۲٫۴٫۲٫۳ Metaphor……………………………………………………………………………………… 20

۲٫۴٫۲٫۴ Idiom…………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

۲٫۴٫۲٫۵ Proverb………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

۲٫۵ Strategies of interpreting……………………………………………………………………… 22

۲٫۵٫۱ Replacement by similar expression…………………………………………………….. 23

۲٫۵٫۲ Replacement by equivalent expression ……………………………………………….. 23

۲٫۵٫۳ Explanation, rephrasing, paraphrasing ………………………………………………… 24

۲٫۵٫۳٫۱ Explanation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

۲٫۵٫۳٫۲ Paraphrasing…………………………………………………………………………………. 25

۲٫۵٫۳٫۳ Rephrasing …………………………………………………………………………………… 25

۲٫۵٫۴ Omission…………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

۳ Practical Part ………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

۳٫۱ Introduction to the practical part……………………………………………………………….. 27

۳٫۲ Corpus…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

۳٫۳ Tables with students’ interpretations …………………………………………………………. 28

۴ Statistics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42

۴٫۱ The summary of techniques and strategies used:…………………………………………. 42

۴٫۲ The summary of strategies used with rhetorical devices: ……………………………… 43

۵ Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44

۶ Resumé………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ۴۶

۷ Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

۷٫۱ Appendix 1 – Transcription of the original speech……………………………………… 48

۸ Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………. 52

۸٫۱ Work cited…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

۸٫۲ Internet sources ………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

۹ Anotace …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

INTRODUCTION

Metaphors, idioms, proverbs or as we can collectively call them figurative or rhetorical language are often a common problem for interpreters and translators. The main issue is that sometimes interpreters simply cannot find an adequate translation for such rhetorical device and therefore they have to improvise. While in translation this can be easier since translators usually have the required time to do the necessary research in order to find the best equivalent for the target language1, in interpreting they do not. For this reason I have decided to focus mainly on the interpreting theory and practice in this thesis, although in certain cases the translating part will be described as well.

An interpreter has to translate given expressions as quickly as possible and at the same time he or she has to faithfully convey the meaning of it. There are a few factors that an interpreter has to take into consideration in this process. The aim of this thesis is to focus on such factors like for example strategies and techniques of interpretation.

The thesis is separated into two parts, the first part, which is theoretical and the second part, which is practical. Both parts are then divided into another chapters and subchapters.

Political discourse will serve as a source of figurative expressions; specifically it will be the first inaugural speech of George W. Bush from the 11th of January 2001. Brief description of political discourse as well as the events around the inauguration of George W. Bush will be described in the first chapter of the thesis. This will be followed by analysis of chosen expressions from Bush’s Inaugural Address. Each expression will be explained and translated into Czech language, which will serve as a base for other parts of the thesis. In chapters 2.3 and 2.5 I will take a closer look at different kinds of techniques and strategies of interpreting both in general and with focus on rhetorical language; afterwards I will point out the advantages and disadvantages of their use for translating figurative expressions.

The practical part is an experiment, where a group of students listened to this inaugural address and they interpreted it into the Czech language. Following transcripts were rewritten and afterwards ten figurative expressions were extracted from their interpretations. These translated expressions were analyzed and compared with the translation proposed by me. Focus was also put on the appropriateness of individual technique and strategy for each rhetorical device and on interpreter’s understanding of the context. On the base of the frequency of techniques and strategies used in the extracts the evaluation and conclusion were made.


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