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دانلود پایان نامه دکترای زبان انگلیسی با عنوان The Semantics and Pragmatics of Demonstratives in English and Arabic که شامل ۲۷۲ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Abstract

This research investigates the semantics and pragmatics of demonstratives in two

languages, English and Arabic, within the framework of relevance theory. The study applies

the fundamental distinction between ‘conceptual’ and ‘procedural’ semantics in an attempt to

account for the various instantiations of such referring expressions in the two languages. I

argue that demonstratives play a crucial role in aligning the discourse models of the speaker

and hearer by encoding procedural semantics instructing the hearer to maintain or create a

joint level of attention to the intended referent as opposed to other referential candidates.

Following Diessel (2006), I take it that this notion of joint attention subsumes all the

cognitive and functional roles played by demonstratives in discourse. I also argue that

demonstratives encode a (pro)concept of distance which falls under the scope of the

attention-directing procedure, thus creating the internal contrast between the intended referent

and other candidate referents. Within this proposal, I discuss how demonstratives can

contribute to both the explicit and the implicit levels of meaning by virtue of the interaction

between their encoded semantics and the context in a relevance-driven framework. Compared

to other referring expressions or no referring expression at all, the role of a demonstrative

achieves relevance on the implicit level. It can either highlight a certain aspect of the referent,

or encourage the creation of weak implicatures, or signal a certain cognitive/emotional

attitude towards the referent. The study is supported by an analysis of corpus data from both

languages in order to supplement theoretical proposals with attested evidence.

I further extend my analysis to include two areas. First, I discuss cases of self-repair in

spoken English discourse which involves the definite article and demonstratives. By linking

the notion of self-repair to that of optimal relevance, I shed some light on the semantic and

pragmatic differences between these two referring expressions. Second, I extend my analysis

to include other forms of demonstratives in Arabic and explore their semantic and pragmatic

behaviour in discourse. I propose a procedural account for the three forms attentional haa,

kadhaalik and haakadhaa, arguing that their contribution goes well beyond that of mere

demonstrative reference to that of being discourse markers encoding procedural constraints

on interpretation. I also investigate some alternative syntactic structures where

demonstratives occur, arguing that the stylistic effect of emphasis which they give rise to can

be explained in terms of relevant cognitive effects.Contents

Contents

Abstract ii

Acknowledgements iii

List of Tables and Figures vii

Arabic Transcription Notations viii

List of Abbreviations ix

Chapter 1: Introduction 10

۱٫۱ Aims of the research 10

۱٫۲ Theoretical 14

۱٫۳ Data 15

۱٫۳٫۱ The English Corpus (ICE-GB) 16

۱٫۳٫۲ The Arabic Corpus (NEMLAR) 19

۱٫۴ Structure of the thesis 23

Chapter 2: Previous studies 26

۲٫۱ Reference 26

۲٫۲ Demonstratives in English 29

۲٫۳ Demonstratives in Arabic 33

۲٫۴ Cognitive approaches 39

۲٫۴٫۱ The Givenness Hierarchy 40

۲٫۴٫۲ Demonstratives and interaction 45

۲٫۳٫۳ Demonstratives and joint attention 48

۲٫۵ Summary 52

Chapter 3: Relevance theory 54

۳٫۱ Relevance theory 54

۳٫۱٫۱ Relevance theory and communication 54

۳٫۱٫۲ Inference and understanding 57

۳٫۱٫۳ Explicating and implicating 61

۳٫۱٫۴ Relevance and reference 65

۳٫۲ Concepts and procedures 70

۳٫۲٫۱ The conceptual-procedural distinction and the explicit-implicit distinction ………. 72

۳٫۲٫۲ The conceptual-procedural distinction and truth 76

۳٫۲٫۳ Types of concepts 78

۳٫۳ Summary 81

Chapter 4. The semantics and pragmatics of demonstratives 83

۴٫۱ The semantics of demonstratives 83

۴٫۱٫۱ What do demonstratives encode? 84

۴٫۱٫۲ Demonstratives and 86

۴٫۱٫۳ Demonstratives and attention 92

۴٫۱٫۴ Distance, attention and relevance 101

۴٫۲ The interpretation of demonstratives 107

۴٫۲٫۱ Demonstratives and explicit content 107

۴٫۲٫۲ Demonstratives and implicit content 125

۴٫۲٫۳ First-mention demonstratives 136

۴٫۳ Summary 142

Chapter 5. Extending the analysis: Demonstratives and Self-Repair in English 143

۵٫۱ Demonstratives and self-repair 143

۵٫۱٫۱ The definite article and demonstratives 144

۵٫۱٫۲ Self-repair and relevance 151

۵٫۱٫۳ The this/that 154

۵٫۱٫۴ This/that the 157

۵٫۱٫۵ Distal or proximal? 161

۵٫۲ Summary 164

Chapter 6. Extending the analysis: Other forms of demonstratives in Modern Standard Arabic165

۶٫۱ The morphology and semantics of demonstratives in MSA 165

۶٫۱٫۱ Demonstrative forms in MSA and varieties of Arabic 167

۶٫۱٫۲ Arabic and procedural meaning 171

۶٫۲ Case studies 177

۶٫۲٫۱ Attentional haa: procedure and attention 177

۶٫۲٫۱٫۱ Approaches to attentional haa 179

۶٫۲٫۱٫۲ The relevance of attentional haa 183

۶٫۲٫۲ kadhaalik: demonstrative or discourse 191

۶٫۲٫۲٫۱ A distinction 192

۶٫۲٫۲٫۲ kadhaalik as a demonstrative 195

۶٫۲٫۲٫۳ kadhaalik as a discourse marker 205

۶٫۲٫۳ haakadhaa: deictic, anaphoric and discourse functions 219

۶٫۲٫۳٫۱ A distinction 221

۶٫۲٫۳٫۳ haakadhaa in discourse marker uses 227

۶٫۳ A note on demonstratives and the interpretation of emphasis 235

۶٫۳٫۱ Noun + demonstrative 236

۶٫۳٫۲ Proper noun + demonstrative 242

۶٫۳٫۳ Demonstrative + 3rd person pronoun + noun 249

۶٫۴ Summary 254

Chapter 7. Conclusion 255

۷٫۱ Summary 255

۷٫۲ Future research 259

References 262

List of Tables and Figures

Table 1: The English corpus chosen for this study from the ICE-GB 19

Table 2: The Arabic corpus chosen for this study from NEMLAR 23

Table 3: Demonstrative forms in MSA 34

Table 4: The lexical semantics of the pronoun she (from Nicolle 1997: 49) 104

Table 5: Demonstratives in MSA according to Holes (2004) 169

Table 6: Proximal demonstrative forms in Arabic dialects 169

Table 7: Distal demonstrative forms in Arabic dialects 170

Table 8: Number of instances of kadhaalik in the corpus 206

Table 9: Number of instances of haakadhaa in the corpus 221

Figure 1: Proposed semantic analysis for English/Arabic demonstratives 12

Figure 2: Screen shot of that concordance in the ICE-GB using the ICECUP 18

Figure 3: Screen shot of haadhihi concordance in NEMLAR using LOLO 22

Figure 4: The Givenness Hierarchy according to Gundel et al. (1993) 41

Figure 5: Four types of meaning according to Wilson & Sperber 74

Figure 6: The morphology of haadhaa 177

Figure 7: The morphology of kadhaalik 191

Figure 8: The morphology of 220


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