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دانلود پایان نامه دکترای زبان انگلیسی با موضوع AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF ARGUMENT STRUCTURE AND LEXICAL MAPPING THEORY FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION که شامل ۱۶۷ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF ARGUMENT STRUCTURE AND LEXICAL MAPPING THEORY FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION
Abstract
In recent work on the Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) formalism, argument
structure (a-structure) and lexical mapping theory have been used to explain many
linguistic behaviours across languages. It has been suggested that the combination
of c-structure, f-structure and a-structure might form a suitable architecture
for Universal Grammar. If this suggestion is valid, the LFG formalism would be a
suitable linguistic model for Machine Translation (MT). This thesis reports on the
investigations carried out on using a-structure and lexical mapping theory for aiding
various sub-tasks in MT. The two investigations described in this thesis are the
abilities of a-structure and lexical mapping theory to: (1) aid different kinds of lexical
and structural disambiguations involving verbs and prepositions, and (2) act
as a suitable medium for carrying out source-to-target language transfer. Based
on the results of these investigations, this thesis also gives an evaluation of how
well a-structure and lexical mapping theory can improve the existing models of
linguistic-based MT.

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Problems of Machine Translation … 3
1.1.1 Why are problems in MT vital to the application of real-life MT systems? 3
1.1.2 What makes MT so difficult? …. 4
1.1.3 Linguistic Problems ….5
1.1.4 Meaning Representation …. 7
1.2 Motivation and Aims of the Research …8
1.3 Organisation of this Thesis … 10
2 Machine Translation 12
2.1 Different Kinds of Ambiguities …. 13
2.1.1 Lexical Ambiguity … 13
2.1.2 Structural Ambiguity ….14
2.2 Different Kinds of MT Systems …. 15
2.2.1 Direct MT systems … 15
2.2.2 Indirect MT Systems ….16
2.3 Practical Use of some MT Systems ….. 18
2.3.1 Systran ….. 18
2.3.2 M´et´eo ….. 20
2.3.3 Discussion …21
2.4 Methods of Transfer ….. 22
2.5 Alternative Approaches to Machine Translation …. 24
2.5.1 Sublanguage Approach …. 25
2.5.2 Statistics-based Approach … 27
2.5.3 Example-based Approach … 28
2.6 Conclusion …..29
3 Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 32
3.1 The LFG Formalism ….. 33
3.1.1 Constituent Structure (c-structure) … 34
3.1.2 Functional Structure (f-structure) … 35
3.1.3 Semantic Structure (s-structure) …41
3.2 Lexical-Functional Grammar in Machine Translation … 43
3.2.1 Kudo and Nomura’s Lexical-Functional Transfer …. 44
3.2.2 Kaplan et al.’s approach to MT …45
3.2.3 Her et al.’s Lexical and Idiomatic Transfer …. 47
3.3 Conclusion …..51
4 Argument Structure and Lexical Mapping Theory 54
4.1 Thematic Roles …. 55
4.1.1 Agent ….. 56
4.1.2 Beneficiary, Recipient and Experiencer ….. 57
4.1.3 Instrument …61
4.1.4 Theme and Patient … 61
4.1.5 Locative …. 64
4.2 Argument Structure ….. 66
4.2.1 How to establish the a-structure(s) for a verb? ..67
4.3 Lexical Mapping Theory …. 69
4.3.1 Thematic Hierarchy ….69
4.3.2 Classification of Syntactic Functions .. 70
4.3.3 Lexical Mapping Principles ….. 71
4.3.4 Well-formedness Conditions …. 76
4.4 Lexical Mapping— A Demonstration …76
4.4.1 With the Verb ‘give’ ….۷۶
۴٫۴٫۲ With the Morpholexical Operation ‘passive’ … ۷۸
۴٫۴٫۳ With the Morpholexical Operation ‘applicative’ …. ۷۸
۴٫۵ Is A-structure another variant of Case Grammar? …. 79
4.5.1 Case Grammar …. 80
4.5.2 A-structure and Case Grammar — A Comparison …81
4.6 Conclusion …..83
5 Using A-structure and Lexical Mapping Theory for MT 84
5.1 Parsing Source Language Sentence ….. 84
5.1.1 Differentiating V + PP from Phrasal Verb + NP ..86
5.1.2 Differentiating NP with N and PP from NP + PP …. 92
5.2 Lexical Selection …. 96
5.2.1 Lexical Selection for Ergative Verbs .. 98
5.2.2 Lexical Selection for Verbs … 101
5.2.3 Lexical Selection for Phrasal Verbs … 106
5.3 Aiding Sentence Generation ….108
5.3.1 Verb Copying in Chinese … 109
5.3.2 Positioning PPs within a Chinese Sentence …. 111
5.4 Discussion …..114
5.5 Conclusion …..117
6 Dealing with the Transfer of Passive Sentences 119
6.1 Using F-structure as a medium for Transfer .. 119
6.2 Passive in English …122
6.3 Passive in Chinese ….. 126
6.4 Differences between Passive Sentences in English and in Chinese … 129
6.5 The Transfer from English passive sentences to Chinese …. 133
6.6 Discussion …..136
6.7 Conclusion …..140
7 Conclusion and FutureWork 141
7.1 Problems in Using A-structure and Lexical Mapping Theory inMT …. 141
7.1.1 No Matching Source-and-Target Language A-structures …142
7.1.2 Difficulty in Establishing Appropriate A-structures … 144
7.2 What makes this investigation successful? … 147
7.3 FutureWork ….. 148
7.3.1 Disambiguating nouns …. 149
7.3.2 Automatic extraction of a-structures from a corpus … 150
7.3.3 Reducing the processing time …. 150
7.4 Conclusion …..151

List of Figures
1.1 A Word-for-Word Translation …. 4
2.1 Typical building blocks of a transfer-based MT system ..17
2.2 Building blocks of an interlingual MT system ….. 17
2.3 Building blocks of a multilingual MT system using the interlingual approach .. 18
2.4 A dictionary entry for transferring ‘bug’ suggested by Her et al. (1994) …. 26
3.1 C-structure for the sentence “John played Mary a tune on the violin.” … ۳۴
۳٫۲ F-structure for the sentence “John tried to play the guitar.” …. ۳۶
۳٫۳ F-structure for the sentence “John played Mary a tune on the violin.” … ۳۸
۳٫۴ C-structure and F-structure for the sentence “John died.” …. ۴۱
۳٫۵ C-structure & F-structure correspondence of the sentence “John died.” .. ۴۲
۳٫۶ S-structure for the sentence “The baby fell.” … ۴۲
۳٫۷ C-structure, F-structure and S-structure correspondence of the sentence “John died.” ۴۴
۳٫۸ The correspondences between different structures for source and target languages inLFG ……. 46
3.9 A minimal f-structure for transferring the idiom “to kick the bucket” suggested by Her et al. (1994) ….. 50
5.1 Two potential c-structures for the word sequence “John played on words” … ۸۵
۵٫۲ F-structure for “John played on words.” … ۸۹
۵٫۳ F-structure for “John played on the table.” … ۸۹
۵٫۴ The lexical mapping between a-structure arguments and their corresponding syntactic functions for the sentences in Table 5.1 …. 92
5.5 A possible c-structure for “John bought a book in a bookshop in Prague.” produced
by a syntax-based parser…. 93
5.6 Another possible c-structure for “John bought a book in a bookshop in Prague.” produced by a parser…. 94
5.7 The c-structure for “John saw a girl with a dog with a telescope.” … ۹۶
۵٫۸ Examples of English ergative verbs with matching Chinese counterpart … 99
5.9 Examples of English ergative verbs with different Chinese translation in transitive and intransitive cases … 100
5.10 A-structures and sample sentences for the English verb ‘tell’ and its Chinese counterparts ….. 102
5.11 The use of a-structures for lexical selection .. 103
5.12 Some examples on lexical selection for verbs by using a-structures … 105
6.1 English and Chinese F-structures for “Mary was killed by John.”…۱۳۰
۶٫۲ English and Chinese F-structures for “Mary was killed.”…. ۱۳۱
۶٫۳ The English and Chinese equivalents of the sentence “Mary was given a book by John” …. ۱۳۲
۶٫۴ Skeleton of Chinese F-structure for “Mary was given a book by John.”.. ۱۳۵
۶٫۵ The final Chinese F-structure for “Mary was given a book by John.”… ۱۳۶
۶٫۶ Transferring English passive sentence into Chinese using a-structure and lexical
mapping theory …. 137

List of Tables
1.1 Different meanings of some nouns ….. 7
3.1 Different cases for the Czech proper noun ‘Jan’ ….۴۰
۵٫۱ Some examples of different combinations of verbs and prepositions … 88
5.2 Different Meanings of ‘look up’ …. ۱۰۷
۵٫۳ The a-structure arguments for ‘look up’ and its Chinese equivalents … 108


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