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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Learner response, teacher methodology and cognition on teaching L2 grammar at upper secondary school in Norway که شامل  114 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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۱٫ Introduction 1

۱٫۱ Aim and research questions 1

۱٫۲ Relevance 1

۱٫۳ Theory 2

۱٫۴ Methodology 4

۱٫۵ Thesis outline 6

Chapter 2. Literary review 6

۲٫۱ Introduction 6

۲٫۲ Definition of 7

۲٫۳٫ Understanding Grammar 9

۲٫۴٫ Grammar teaching: A historical perspective 9

۲٫۵٫ Second language acquisition process 11

۲٫۵٫۱ Input and Intake 11

۲٫۵٫۲ Acquisition 12

۲٫۵٫۳ Access and Output 12

۲٫۶٫ Teaching grammar techniques, methods, and approaches 13

۲٫۶٫۱ Task-based learning (TBL) 13

۲٫۶٫۲ Feedback 16

۲٫۶٫۳ Benefits and challenges of teaching grammar 18

۲٫۶٫۴ Teaching grammar to L2 learners 21

۲٫۶٫۵ Teaching according to learner context 22

۲٫۶٫۶ Teaching Grammar in Norway 24

۲٫۷ Summary 27

Chapter 3: Methodology 28

۳٫۱ Introduction 28

۳٫۲ Choosing a qualitative method 28

۳٫۳ Participant sampling 29

۳٫۴ Data collection method 31

۳٫۵ Data analysis method 35

۳٫۷ Ethics 37

۳٫۸ Summary 38

۴٫ Interview summaries 39

۴٫۱ Teacher interview summaries 39

۴٫۲ Learner interview summaries 58

۵٫ Discussion 69

۵٫۱ Introduction 69

۵٫۲ Methodology and teacher cognition 69

۵٫۲٫۱ Learner context and grammatical presentation 69

۵٫۲٫۲ Feedback 73

۵٫۲٫۳ Task work 76

۵٫۲٫۴ Integrating grammar with work on language skills 79

۵٫۳ Learner discussion. 86

۵٫۴ Further research 90

۵٫۵ Limitations of the study 91

۶٫ Conclusion 91

References 97

Appendix 1 101

Teacher Interview Guide 101

Appendix 2 108

Student Focus group Interview Guide 108

Abstract

This thesis aimed at exploring teacher cognition (knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices) in relation to the teaching of grammar of English as a secondary language at upper secondary school in Norway, academic VG1, vocational VG1, and VG2. Its relevance was based on there being no specific grammatical requirements as part of the English curriculum of LK06, the grammatical expectations are based on generalized statements of learner competence that requires implicit or explicit grammatical knowledge. The thesis further aimed to obtain the learners’ opinion on their teacher’s methodology. The data was obtained through a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with five teachers and focus group interviews with 30 learners, divided equally.

The study revealed that the majority of the teachers had negative attitudes towards the teaching of explicit grammar and that they never approached implicit acquisition of grammar as a primary aim. Although they considered grammar important as part of language acquisition, most expected that their learners should have acquired the necessary grammar prior to upper secondary school. The teachers’ cognition regarding grammar was reflected in how irregularly they addressed grammar throughout a year.

The findings of the study suggested that the learner context was the most influential factor as to why and how often they taught grammar, especially in regards to the vocational teachers who had to adapt to the extreme differences in proficiency among their learners. The teachers varied in regards to how they addressed grammar explicitly and implicitly, and the majority in accordance with their cognition. Feedback to written and oral activities, grammatical presentations, and grammatical task work were revealed as the primary approaches and techniques used in order to teach explicit grammar.

The teachers’ primary focus was on the acquisition of grammar implicitly through input and output. There were no signs that indicated common agreement among the teachers regarding a preferential activity of reading, writing, or oral activities, although the individual teachers had their own preferences, which stemmed from teacher cognition based primarily on their individual learner context, previous experience, and education.

The learner interviews largely reflected the cognition of the teachers in a positive manner, especially the use of feedback and variety. Although there was one case which showed to be particularly negative, even though the teacher had similar sentiments towards the weaknesses, unveiled by both teacher and learner

The significance of this study is that there is a clear knowledge gap regarding research on the teaching of grammar at upper secondary school in Norway, specifically at academic VG1, vocational VG1, and VG2. Thus, this thesis contributes to a field which has not been given sufficient attention. It may also be used by teachers in order to gain insight into how grammar is being taught and into the influence of a learner context on teacher cognition. Further research may be done on learner-context-based teaching and applying appropriate approaches, methods, and techniques to learner contexts in multi-level classes.


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