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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Learner response, teacher methodology and cognition on teaching L2 grammar at upper secondary school in Norway که شامل  114 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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۱٫ Introduction 1

۱٫۱ Aim and research questions 1

۱٫۲ Relevance 1

۱٫۳ Theory 2

۱٫۴ Methodology 4

۱٫۵ Thesis outline 6

Chapter 2. Literary review 6

۲٫۱ Introduction 6

۲٫۲ Definition of 7

۲٫۳٫ Understanding Grammar 9

۲٫۴٫ Grammar teaching: A historical perspective 9

۲٫۵٫ Second language acquisition process 11

۲٫۵٫۱ Input and Intake 11

۲٫۵٫۲ Acquisition 12

۲٫۵٫۳ Access and Output 12

۲٫۶٫ Teaching grammar techniques, methods, and approaches 13

۲٫۶٫۱ Task-based learning (TBL) 13

۲٫۶٫۲ Feedback 16

۲٫۶٫۳ Benefits and challenges of teaching grammar 18

۲٫۶٫۴ Teaching grammar to L2 learners 21

۲٫۶٫۵ Teaching according to learner context 22

۲٫۶٫۶ Teaching Grammar in Norway 24

۲٫۷ Summary 27

Chapter 3: Methodology 28

۳٫۱ Introduction 28

۳٫۲ Choosing a qualitative method 28

۳٫۳ Participant sampling 29

۳٫۴ Data collection method 31

۳٫۵ Data analysis method 35

۳٫۷ Ethics 37

۳٫۸ Summary 38

۴٫ Interview summaries 39

۴٫۱ Teacher interview summaries 39

۴٫۲ Learner interview summaries 58

۵٫ Discussion 69

۵٫۱ Introduction 69

۵٫۲ Methodology and teacher cognition 69

۵٫۲٫۱ Learner context and grammatical presentation 69

۵٫۲٫۲ Feedback 73

۵٫۲٫۳ Task work 76

۵٫۲٫۴ Integrating grammar with work on language skills 79

۵٫۳ Learner discussion. 86

۵٫۴ Further research 90

۵٫۵ Limitations of the study 91

۶٫ Conclusion 91

References 97

Appendix 1 101

Teacher Interview Guide 101

Appendix 2 108

Student Focus group Interview Guide 108

Abstract

This thesis aimed at exploring teacher cognition (knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices) in relation to the teaching of grammar of English as a secondary language at upper secondary school in Norway, academic VG1, vocational VG1, and VG2. Its relevance was based on there being no specific grammatical requirements as part of the English curriculum of LK06, the grammatical expectations are based on generalized statements of learner competence that requires implicit or explicit grammatical knowledge. The thesis further aimed to obtain the learners’ opinion on their teacher’s methodology. The data was obtained through a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with five teachers and focus group interviews with 30 learners, divided equally.

The study revealed that the majority of the teachers had negative attitudes towards the teaching of explicit grammar and that they never approached implicit acquisition of grammar as a primary aim. Although they considered grammar important as part of language acquisition, most expected that their learners should have acquired the necessary grammar prior to upper secondary school. The teachers’ cognition regarding grammar was reflected in how irregularly they addressed grammar throughout a year.

The findings of the study suggested that the learner context was the most influential factor as to why and how often they taught grammar, especially in regards to the vocational teachers who had to adapt to the extreme differences in proficiency among their learners. The teachers varied in regards to how they addressed grammar explicitly and implicitly, and the majority in accordance with their cognition. Feedback to written and oral activities, grammatical presentations, and grammatical task work were revealed as the primary approaches and techniques used in order to teach explicit grammar.

The teachers’ primary focus was on the acquisition of grammar implicitly through input and output. There were no signs that indicated common agreement among the teachers regarding a preferential activity of reading, writing, or oral activities, although the individual teachers had their own preferences, which stemmed from teacher cognition based primarily on their individual learner context, previous experience, and education.

The learner interviews largely reflected the cognition of the teachers in a positive manner, especially the use of feedback and variety. Although there was one case which showed to be particularly negative, even though the teacher had similar sentiments towards the weaknesses, unveiled by both teacher and learner

The significance of this study is that there is a clear knowledge gap regarding research on the teaching of grammar at upper secondary school in Norway, specifically at academic VG1, vocational VG1, and VG2. Thus, this thesis contributes to a field which has not been given sufficient attention. It may also be used by teachers in order to gain insight into how grammar is being taught and into the influence of a learner context on teacher cognition. Further research may be done on learner-context-based teaching and applying appropriate approaches, methods, and techniques to learner contexts in multi-level classes.

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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی با موضوع THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT) IN AN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT IN A LAO HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION که شامل  108 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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ABSTRACT

English language is an international language used in order to communicate in the fields of

education, technology, trade and politics so that it is learnt as a foreign language in many

countries around the world. Due to the importance and necessity to communicate in

English, in recent decades many EFL countries as well as Lao higher educational

institutions have shifted from traditional grammar-based teaching method to

communicative-focused instruction. However, some research has reported that there is still

has a gap between schools’ language policy and classrooms’ practices. This study explores

the understandings and attitudes of English teachers in adopting a Communicative

Language Teaching (CLT) approach into their classrooms. It investigates factors that

promote or hinder EFL teachers’ implementation of this teaching approach into Lao higher

educational institutions English classrooms. It also examines the syllabi that influence

them in teaching communicative English.

This qualitative study investigated the perceptions of English teachers in a Department of

English and a case study approach was applied in order to explore teachers’ understandings

of CLT. Ten English teachers from one department in a Lao higher education institution

were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The study compares the literature about

communicative English teaching with the findings of data collected from these ten one-toone,

in-depth interviews in the same setting.

The findings indicated that the factors that affected the implementation of CLT in the Lao

context related to teachers’ factors include: misconceptions of CLT, traditional grammarbased

teaching approach, teachers’ English proficiency and lack of CLT training. The

issues raised from students include: students’ low English proficiency, students’ learning

styles and behaviours, and lack of motivation to develop communicative competence.

Other difficulties caused by educational system were: the power of the examination, class

size, and insufficient funding to support CLT and the last factors caused by CLT itself was:

the lack of CLT interaction in society and school.

The study also provides a range of practical recommendations for the faculty deans, senior

managers at higher educational institutions, ministry educators and policy-makers to

further improve implementation of CLT and to help ensure the success in implementing

this approach in Lao higher educational institutions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

DECLARATION…………………………………………………………………………….ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………..iii

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………….iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………….vi

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………….vii

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………..ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW…………………………………۱

۱٫۱٫ NTRODUCTION……………………………………………..………………….…….۱

۱٫۲٫ BACKGROUND OF CLT……………………………………………..……..………..۱

۱٫۳٫ BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY………….…………………………………..……۳

۱٫۴٫ VALUE OF THE RESEARCH………………,……………………………………….۵

۱٫۵٫ RESEARCH AIMS AND QUESTIONS……………………………………………….۶

۱٫۶٫ OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH…………………………………………….……..۶

۱٫۷٫ SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………..۷

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………..………۸

۲٫۱٫ INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..….……۸

۲٫۲٫ COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE………………………………………..….……۸

۲٫۳٫ DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING………………….۹

۲٫۴٫ CHARACTERISTICS AND PRINCIPLES OF CLT………………………….……..۱۰

۲٫۵٫ ADOPTION OF CLT IN EFL CONTEXTS…………………………………………..۱۰

۲٫۶٫ ISSUES OF ADOPTING CLT IN EFL CONTEXTS…………….……………………۱۲

۲٫۷٫ SUMMARY…………………………………………………………….…….………۲۷

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY………………………………………………….۲۸

۳٫۱٫ INTRODUCTION……………………………………….…………….……….……..۲۸

۳٫۲٫ METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………….……………….۲۸

۳٫۳٫ RESEARCH METHODS…………………………………………………………….۳۵

۳٫۴٫ DATA COLLECTION……………………………………..………………………….۳۷

۳٫۵٫ DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………..۳۸

۳٫۶٫ RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY…………………………………………………….۴۰

۳٫۷٫ ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS…………………………………………………….۴۲

۳٫۸٫ LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY………………………………………….………..۴۳

۳٫۹٫ SUMMARY………………………………………….………………………………۴۴

CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS………………………………………………..…………۴۵

۴٫۱٫ INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………۴۵

۴٫۲٫ TEACHER BACKGROUNDS……………………………………….……………….۴۵

۴٫۳٫ INVOLVEMENT IN CLT……………………………………………………………..۴۶

۴٫۴٫ INTERPRETATION OF CLT…………………………………………………………۴۷

۴٫۵٫ BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING CLT…………………………………………….۵۳

۴٫۶٫ SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………………..۶۷

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS……..۶۸

۵٫۱٫ INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………….………۶۸

۵٫۲٫ MAJOR FINDINGS………………………………………..………………….………۶۸

۵٫۳٫ RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………….……..۸۴

۵٫۴٫ FUTURE RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES…………………………………………..۸۶

۵٫۵٫ RESEARCH SUMMARY……………………………………………………………۸۶

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….……۸۷

APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………….…..۹۵

Appendix 1: Qualitative Research for In-depth Interview Questions……………………….۹۵

Appendix 2: Participant Consent Form………………..….……………………….….……۹۶

Appendix 3: Information Sheet………..…….……………..………………………………۹۸

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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته مترجمی و تفسیر زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Polysemous Verbs in Jambi Malay: an Optimization of Interpretation Approach که شامل  54 صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Table of contents

Acknowledgements ii Table of contents iv 

۱٫ Introduction 1

۲٫ An Optimality Theoretic Account 5

۲٫۱ Basic Concepts of OT 5

۲٫۲ OT Semantics 6 2.2.1 Polysemy 6

۲٫۲٫۲ Zwarts (2004) 8

۲٫۲٫۳ Foolen and de Hoop (to appear) 11

۲٫۲٫۴ Conclusion 20 

۳٫ The Analysis of the Bare Verb Raso 21

۳٫۱ The Interpretations of the Bare Verb Raso 21 

۳٫۲ The Optimization Process of Interpretations of the Bare Verb Raso in OT Semantics 27

۳٫۳٫ Conclusion 

۳۴ ۴٫ The Analysis of the Bare Verb Kato 

۳۵ ۴٫۱ The Interpretations of the Bare Verb Kato 35 

۴٫۲ The Optimization Process of Interpretations of the Bare Verb Kato in OT Semantics 41 

۴٫۳ Conclusion 45 

۵٫ General Conclusions 46 

References

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دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان با موضوع کنایه یا تمثیل در گفتمان سیاسی و راهکارهایی برای تفسیر و ترجمه آن که شامل ۶۰ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Figurative language in political discourse and strategies for its interpreting

Table of contents

۱ Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

۲ Theoretical Part ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3

۲٫۱ Political discourse …………………………………………………………………………………. 3

۲٫۱٫۱ Nature of political speech……………………………………………………………………. 3

۲٫۲ Figurative expressions in political discourse ……………………………………………… 4

۲٫۲٫۱ First Inaugural Address of George W. Bush ………………………………………….. 4

۲٫۲٫۲ Inaugural Address passages…………………………………………………………………. 5

۲٫۳ The techniques of interpreting in general …………………………………………………… 12

۲٫۳٫۱ Reformulation………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

۲٫۳٫۲ The salami technique………………………………………………………………………… 14

۲٫۳٫۳ Simplification ………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

۲٫۳٫۴ Generalization………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

۲٫۳٫۵ Explanation……………………………………………………………………………………… 16

۲٫۳٫۶ Summarizing……………………………………………………………………………………. 17

۲٫۴ Rhetoric and types of rhetorical devices…………………………………………………….. 17

۲٫۴٫۱ Rhetoric ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

۲٫۴٫۲ Some rhetorical devices…………………………………………………………………….. 19

۲٫۴٫۲٫۱ Figure ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

۲٫۴٫۲٫۲ Phrase………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20

۲٫۴٫۲٫۳ Metaphor……………………………………………………………………………………… 20

۲٫۴٫۲٫۴ Idiom…………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

۲٫۴٫۲٫۵ Proverb………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

۲٫۵ Strategies of interpreting……………………………………………………………………… 22

۲٫۵٫۱ Replacement by similar expression…………………………………………………….. 23

۲٫۵٫۲ Replacement by equivalent expression ……………………………………………….. 23

۲٫۵٫۳ Explanation, rephrasing, paraphrasing ………………………………………………… 24

۲٫۵٫۳٫۱ Explanation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

۲٫۵٫۳٫۲ Paraphrasing…………………………………………………………………………………. 25

۲٫۵٫۳٫۳ Rephrasing …………………………………………………………………………………… 25

۲٫۵٫۴ Omission…………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

۳ Practical Part ………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

۳٫۱ Introduction to the practical part……………………………………………………………….. 27

۳٫۲ Corpus…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

۳٫۳ Tables with students’ interpretations …………………………………………………………. 28

۴ Statistics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42

۴٫۱ The summary of techniques and strategies used:…………………………………………. 42

۴٫۲ The summary of strategies used with rhetorical devices: ……………………………… 43

۵ Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44

۶ Resumé………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ۴۶

۷ Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

۷٫۱ Appendix 1 – Transcription of the original speech……………………………………… 48

۸ Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………. 52

۸٫۱ Work cited…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

۸٫۲ Internet sources ………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

۹ Anotace …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

INTRODUCTION

Metaphors, idioms, proverbs or as we can collectively call them figurative or rhetorical language are often a common problem for interpreters and translators. The main issue is that sometimes interpreters simply cannot find an adequate translation for such rhetorical device and therefore they have to improvise. While in translation this can be easier since translators usually have the required time to do the necessary research in order to find the best equivalent for the target language1, in interpreting they do not. For this reason I have decided to focus mainly on the interpreting theory and practice in this thesis, although in certain cases the translating part will be described as well.

An interpreter has to translate given expressions as quickly as possible and at the same time he or she has to faithfully convey the meaning of it. There are a few factors that an interpreter has to take into consideration in this process. The aim of this thesis is to focus on such factors like for example strategies and techniques of interpretation.

The thesis is separated into two parts, the first part, which is theoretical and the second part, which is practical. Both parts are then divided into another chapters and subchapters.

Political discourse will serve as a source of figurative expressions; specifically it will be the first inaugural speech of George W. Bush from the 11th of January 2001. Brief description of political discourse as well as the events around the inauguration of George W. Bush will be described in the first chapter of the thesis. This will be followed by analysis of chosen expressions from Bush’s Inaugural Address. Each expression will be explained and translated into Czech language, which will serve as a base for other parts of the thesis. In chapters 2.3 and 2.5 I will take a closer look at different kinds of techniques and strategies of interpreting both in general and with focus on rhetorical language; afterwards I will point out the advantages and disadvantages of their use for translating figurative expressions.

The practical part is an experiment, where a group of students listened to this inaugural address and they interpreted it into the Czech language. Following transcripts were rewritten and afterwards ten figurative expressions were extracted from their interpretations. These translated expressions were analyzed and compared with the translation proposed by me. Focus was also put on the appropriateness of individual technique and strategy for each rhetorical device and on interpreter’s understanding of the context. On the base of the frequency of techniques and strategies used in the extracts the evaluation and conclusion were made.

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دانلود پایان نامه ارشد زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی با موضوع شیفت ها در ترجمه ی غیر ادبی که شامل ۷۹ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Shifts in Non-Literary Translation : with focus on EU translation

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

۱٫ Style and shifts…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

۱٫۱٫ Style and how to study it……………………………………………………………………………. 9

۱٫۲٫ Shifts in Translation………………………………………………………………………………… 11

۲٫ Translation in the European Union………………………………………………………………. 14

۲٫۱٫ Language policy of the European Union ……………………………………………………. 14

۲٫۲٫ Problems of EU translation………………………………………………………………………. 15

۲٫۳٫ EU translation from the perspective of translation studies ……………………….. 18

۳٫ An Analysis of Style through Shifts in Literary Translation – method proposed by

Hilkka Pekkanen ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

۳٫۱٫ Objectives of the analysis ………………………………………………………………………… 21

۳٫۲٫ Description of the method………………………………………………………………………… 22

۳٫۳٫ Findings and evaluation of the method………………………………………………………. 24

۴٫ Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

۴٫۱٫ Analysed texts………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

۴٫۱٫۱٫ EU documents………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

۴٫۱٫۲٫ Non-EU documents…………………………………………………………………………… 28

۴٫۲٫ Application of the method and related problems……………………………………… 30

۴٫۲٫۱٫ Types of translation shifts………………………………………………………………….. 32

۴٫۲٫۲٫ Definition of units of comparison……………………………………………………….. 32

۴٫۲٫۳٫ Differences between the English and the Slovak Language……………………. 33

۴٫۳٫ Illustration of the method……………………………………………………………………….. 37

۵٫ Categories of Optional Shifts………………………………………………………………………. 43

۵

۵٫۱٫ Expansion shifts ……………………………………………………………………………………… 45

۵٫۲٫ Contraction shifts ……………………………………………………………………………………. 47

۵٫۳٫ Shifts in order…………………………………………………………………………………………. 50

۵٫۴٫ Miscellaneous shifts………………………………………………………………………………… 51

۶٫ Analysis and Its Findings…………………………………………………………………………….. 54

۶٫۱٫ General results for respective extracts …………………………………………………….. 54

۶٫۲٫ Results for respective categories……………………………………………………………… 61

۶٫۲٫۱٫ Expansion shifts ……………………………………………………………………………….. 61

۶٫۲٫۲٫ Contraction shifts ……………………………………………………………………………… 64

۶٫۲٫۳٫ Shifts in order…………………………………………………………………………………… 66

۶٫۲٫۴٫ Miscellaneous shifts………………………………………………………………………….. 67

۶٫۳٫ Summary of the findings………………………………………………………………………… 68

۶٫۴٫ Evaluation of the method and its problems………………………………………………. 69

CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72

Works Cited …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

Primary sources…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

Secondary Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

Resumé – English ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79

Resumé – Slovak……………………………………………………………………………………………. 80

Appendix A– CD with all the analysed extracts

INTRODUCTION

As suggested by its title, Shifts in Non-Literary Translation, the present thesis deals with

the analysis of certain aspects of non-literary translation, namely translation shifts.

Translation shifts are changes introduced to the target text during the translation process,

whether motivated by objective reasons or subjective preferences of the translator. The

method used in this work to study the translation shifts was proposed by a Finnish scholar

Hilkka Pekkanen in order to study the shifts in literary texts.

The purpose for which Pekkanen (2010) created this method was to study the style of

translators of literary works and to find out whether the ‘translator’s voice’ can be heard in

their translations. The details of her research will be presented later in Chapter 3. Since the

analysis yielded satisfactory results in the domain of literary translations, I would like to try

to apply this method on a different kind of texts in order to examine whether it can work

in other domains too. The first objective of this thesis thus is to test the application of

Pekkanen’s method on non-literary texts, and with a different target language; but at the

same time the thesis aims to study the patterns of shifting within non-literary translation,

especially in the documents translated within the European Union institutions as compared

with other non-literary texts.

EU translation represents a specific category of non-literary translation. One of its

dominant characteristics is that EU translators should try to be as faithful to the original as

possible, to avoid different understanding of respective documents in their different

language versions. Another thing is that the translations are usually not a product of one

individual translator but of a whole group of translators, revisers and consultants.

Therefore it is impossible to speak of the style of an individual. Nevertheless, due to these

and other specific features (discussed in Chapter 2), which distinguish EU translation from

other kinds of non-literary translation, it is possible that certain consistency might be found

in the style of EU translation as such. To study whether such consistency exists or whether

each text bears a thumbprint of individual translators, like in the case of literary works, is

…..thus the second objective of this thesis

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دانلود پایان نامه دکترای زبان انگلیسی با عنوان The Semantics and Pragmatics of Demonstratives in English and Arabic که شامل ۲۷۲ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Abstract

This research investigates the semantics and pragmatics of demonstratives in two

languages, English and Arabic, within the framework of relevance theory. The study applies

the fundamental distinction between ‘conceptual’ and ‘procedural’ semantics in an attempt to

account for the various instantiations of such referring expressions in the two languages. I

argue that demonstratives play a crucial role in aligning the discourse models of the speaker

and hearer by encoding procedural semantics instructing the hearer to maintain or create a

joint level of attention to the intended referent as opposed to other referential candidates.

Following Diessel (2006), I take it that this notion of joint attention subsumes all the

cognitive and functional roles played by demonstratives in discourse. I also argue that

demonstratives encode a (pro)concept of distance which falls under the scope of the

attention-directing procedure, thus creating the internal contrast between the intended referent

and other candidate referents. Within this proposal, I discuss how demonstratives can

contribute to both the explicit and the implicit levels of meaning by virtue of the interaction

between their encoded semantics and the context in a relevance-driven framework. Compared

to other referring expressions or no referring expression at all, the role of a demonstrative

achieves relevance on the implicit level. It can either highlight a certain aspect of the referent,

or encourage the creation of weak implicatures, or signal a certain cognitive/emotional

attitude towards the referent. The study is supported by an analysis of corpus data from both

languages in order to supplement theoretical proposals with attested evidence.

I further extend my analysis to include two areas. First, I discuss cases of self-repair in

spoken English discourse which involves the definite article and demonstratives. By linking

the notion of self-repair to that of optimal relevance, I shed some light on the semantic and

pragmatic differences between these two referring expressions. Second, I extend my analysis

to include other forms of demonstratives in Arabic and explore their semantic and pragmatic

behaviour in discourse. I propose a procedural account for the three forms attentional haa,

kadhaalik and haakadhaa, arguing that their contribution goes well beyond that of mere

demonstrative reference to that of being discourse markers encoding procedural constraints

on interpretation. I also investigate some alternative syntactic structures where

demonstratives occur, arguing that the stylistic effect of emphasis which they give rise to can

be explained in terms of relevant cognitive effects.Contents

Contents

Abstract ii

Acknowledgements iii

List of Tables and Figures vii

Arabic Transcription Notations viii

List of Abbreviations ix

Chapter 1: Introduction 10

۱٫۱ Aims of the research 10

۱٫۲ Theoretical 14

۱٫۳ Data 15

۱٫۳٫۱ The English Corpus (ICE-GB) 16

۱٫۳٫۲ The Arabic Corpus (NEMLAR) 19

۱٫۴ Structure of the thesis 23

Chapter 2: Previous studies 26

۲٫۱ Reference 26

۲٫۲ Demonstratives in English 29

۲٫۳ Demonstratives in Arabic 33

۲٫۴ Cognitive approaches 39

۲٫۴٫۱ The Givenness Hierarchy 40

۲٫۴٫۲ Demonstratives and interaction 45

۲٫۳٫۳ Demonstratives and joint attention 48

۲٫۵ Summary 52

Chapter 3: Relevance theory 54

۳٫۱ Relevance theory 54

۳٫۱٫۱ Relevance theory and communication 54

۳٫۱٫۲ Inference and understanding 57

۳٫۱٫۳ Explicating and implicating 61

۳٫۱٫۴ Relevance and reference 65

۳٫۲ Concepts and procedures 70

۳٫۲٫۱ The conceptual-procedural distinction and the explicit-implicit distinction ………. 72

۳٫۲٫۲ The conceptual-procedural distinction and truth 76

۳٫۲٫۳ Types of concepts 78

۳٫۳ Summary 81

Chapter 4. The semantics and pragmatics of demonstratives 83

۴٫۱ The semantics of demonstratives 83

۴٫۱٫۱ What do demonstratives encode? 84

۴٫۱٫۲ Demonstratives and 86

۴٫۱٫۳ Demonstratives and attention 92

۴٫۱٫۴ Distance, attention and relevance 101

۴٫۲ The interpretation of demonstratives 107

۴٫۲٫۱ Demonstratives and explicit content 107

۴٫۲٫۲ Demonstratives and implicit content 125

۴٫۲٫۳ First-mention demonstratives 136

۴٫۳ Summary 142

Chapter 5. Extending the analysis: Demonstratives and Self-Repair in English 143

۵٫۱ Demonstratives and self-repair 143

۵٫۱٫۱ The definite article and demonstratives 144

۵٫۱٫۲ Self-repair and relevance 151

۵٫۱٫۳ The this/that 154

۵٫۱٫۴ This/that the 157

۵٫۱٫۵ Distal or proximal? 161

۵٫۲ Summary 164

Chapter 6. Extending the analysis: Other forms of demonstratives in Modern Standard Arabic165

۶٫۱ The morphology and semantics of demonstratives in MSA 165

۶٫۱٫۱ Demonstrative forms in MSA and varieties of Arabic 167

۶٫۱٫۲ Arabic and procedural meaning 171

۶٫۲ Case studies 177

۶٫۲٫۱ Attentional haa: procedure and attention 177

۶٫۲٫۱٫۱ Approaches to attentional haa 179

۶٫۲٫۱٫۲ The relevance of attentional haa 183

۶٫۲٫۲ kadhaalik: demonstrative or discourse 191

۶٫۲٫۲٫۱ A distinction 192

۶٫۲٫۲٫۲ kadhaalik as a demonstrative 195

۶٫۲٫۲٫۳ kadhaalik as a discourse marker 205

۶٫۲٫۳ haakadhaa: deictic, anaphoric and discourse functions 219

۶٫۲٫۳٫۱ A distinction 221

۶٫۲٫۳٫۳ haakadhaa in discourse marker uses 227

۶٫۳ A note on demonstratives and the interpretation of emphasis 235

۶٫۳٫۱ Noun + demonstrative 236

۶٫۳٫۲ Proper noun + demonstrative 242

۶٫۳٫۳ Demonstrative + 3rd person pronoun + noun 249

۶٫۴ Summary 254

Chapter 7. Conclusion 255

۷٫۱ Summary 255

۷٫۲ Future research 259

References 262

List of Tables and Figures

Table 1: The English corpus chosen for this study from the ICE-GB 19

Table 2: The Arabic corpus chosen for this study from NEMLAR 23

Table 3: Demonstrative forms in MSA 34

Table 4: The lexical semantics of the pronoun she (from Nicolle 1997: 49) 104

Table 5: Demonstratives in MSA according to Holes (2004) 169

Table 6: Proximal demonstrative forms in Arabic dialects 169

Table 7: Distal demonstrative forms in Arabic dialects 170

Table 8: Number of instances of kadhaalik in the corpus 206

Table 9: Number of instances of haakadhaa in the corpus 221

Figure 1: Proposed semantic analysis for English/Arabic demonstratives 12

Figure 2: Screen shot of that concordance in the ICE-GB using the ICECUP 18

Figure 3: Screen shot of haadhihi concordance in NEMLAR using LOLO 22

Figure 4: The Givenness Hierarchy according to Gundel et al. (1993) 41

Figure 5: Four types of meaning according to Wilson & Sperber 74

Figure 6: The morphology of haadhaa 177

Figure 7: The morphology of kadhaalik 191

Figure 8: The morphology of 220

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Abstract

We investigate methods to adapt translation models in SMT to a specific target domain.

We discuss two major problems, unknown words because of data sparseness in the (indomain)

training data, and ambiguities arising from out-of-domain parallel texts with different

domain-specific translations. We propose novel solutions to both problems.

The main contributions of this thesis are as follows:

We present a novel translation model architecture that supports domain adaptation at

decoding time from a vector of component models. The combination is implemented

through instance weighting, and all statistics necessary for the computation of translation

probabilities are stored in the models.

We present an architecture to combine multiple MT systems, using techniques and

ideas from domain adaptation. The hypotheses by external MT systems are treated

as out-of-domain knowledge, and combined with in-domain data through instance

weighting.

We introduce a sentence alignment algorithm that is able to robustly align even noisy

parallel texts. We found that higher-quality sentence alignment of the in-domain parallel

text has a significant effect on translation quality in our target domain.

We propose new translation model features that express how flexible, or general, translation

units are, in order to prevent translations that only occur in the context of multiword

expressions from being overgeneralised.

Wir untersuchen Methoden zur Anpassung von Übersetzungsmodellen in SMÜ an eine bestimmte

Zieldomäne. Wir diskutieren zwei Hauptprobleme: spärliche Daten in den Trainingsdaten

der Zieldomäne führen zu unbekannten Wörtern, und der Herbeizug von Daten

aus Fremddomänen verursacht Mehrdeutigkeiten. Für beide Probleme präsentieren wir neue

Lösungsansätze.

Die Hauptbeiträge dieser Dissertation sind folgende:

Wir präsentieren eine Architektur für Übersetzungsmodelle, welche aus einem Vektor

von Teilmodellen besteht und Domänenadaption während der Übersetzung selbst

erlaubt. Die Kombination der Teilmodelle wird über eine Gewichtung von Vorkommenshäufigkeiten

vollzogen.

Wir stellen eine Architektur zur Kombination verschiedener Übersetzungssysteme

mittels Techniken aus der Domänenadaption vor. Die Hypothesen externer Übersetzungssysteme

werden dabei wie Wissen aus einer Fremddomäne behandelt, und mit

Daten aus der Zieldomäne kombiniert.

Wir präsentieren ein Satzalignierungsverfahren, welches auch verrauschte parallele

Texte robust auf Satzebene alignieren kann. Durch die Erhöhung der Satzalignierungsqualität

erreichen wir eine signifikant bessere Übersetzungsqualität.

Wir schlagen neue Merkmale für Übersetzungsmodelle vor, welche die Flexibilität

von Übersetzungseinheiten ausdrücken, und verhindern, dass inflexible Übersetzungen,

welche nur innerhalb eines Mehrwortausdrucks vorkommen, übergeneralisiert

werden.

Contents

۱ Introduction 17

۱٫۱ Problem: Domain-specific Statistical Machine Translation 17

۱٫۲ Thesis Contributions 18

۱٫۳ Outline 19

۲ Statistical Machine Translation 21

۲٫۱ Statistical Models for Machine Translation 21

۲٫۱٫۱ Word-based SMT 21

۲٫۱٫۲ Log-Linear Models 22

۲٫۲ Phrase-based Translation Models 23

۲٫۲٫۱ Learning Phrase Translations 23

۲٫۳ Discriminative Training 24

۲٫۴ SMT Evaluation 25

۲٫۴٫۱ BLEU and METEOR 25

۲٫۴٫۲ Randomness and Statistical Significance 27

۲٫۵ Alternative Translation Models 27

۲٫۵٫۱ Hierarchical and Syntax-based Translation Models28

۲٫۵٫۲ N-Gram Translation Models 28

۲٫۵٫۳ Continuous Space Translation Models29

۲٫۶ Domain Adaptation in SMT 30

۲٫۶٫۱ Language Model Adaptation 30

۲٫۶٫۲ Translation Model Adaptation 31

۳ Domain-specific Language 35

۳٫۱ The Text+Berg Corpus 35

۳٫۲ Europarl 36

۳٫۳ Linguistic Differences between Text+Berg and Europarl 36

۴ Building a Domain-specific SMT system 43

۴٫۱ Experimental Data and Model Configurations 43

۴٫۱٫۱ Corpora 43

۴٫۱٫۲ Tools and Models 45

۴٫۲ SMT Learning Curves: How Important is In-domain Data? 46

۴٫۳ Summary 52

۵ Improving Data Collection: Sentence Alignment 53

۵٫۱ Related Work 55

۵٫۲ MT-based Sentence Alignment 56

۵٫۳ Bleualign: Algorithm 57

۵٫۳٫۱ Weighting Sentence Pairs58

۵٫۳٫۲ Dynamic Programming Search 58

۵٫۳٫۳ Additional Alignment Procedures 59

۵٫۴ Evaluation of Sentence Alignment 60

۵٫۵ On the Relation Between Sentence Alignment Quality and SMT Performance 62

۵٫۶ Summary64

۶ Translation Model Combination: Tackling the Ambiguity Problem 65

۶٫۱ Discussion of Domain Adaptation Techniques 66

۶٫۱٫۱ Log-linear Interpolation66

۶٫۱٫۲ Linear Interpolation 67

۶٫۱٫۳ Instance Weighting 69

۶٫۱٫۴ Data Selection 70

۶٫۱٫۵ Priority Merge 71

۶٫۱٫۶ Origin Features 71

۶٫۲ Perplexity 72

۶٫۲٫۱ Theoretical Background72

۶٫۲٫۲ Translation Model Perplexity73

۶٫۲٫۳ Perplexity Minimization 75

۶٫۳ Evaluation of Domain Adaptation Techniques 76

۶٫۳٫۱ Data and Methods 76

۶٫۳٫۲ Results 78

۶٫۴ The Impact of Weights 87

۶٫۵ Domain Adaptation with Unsupervised Clustering of Training Data 91

۶٫۵٫۱ Clustering with Exponential Smoothing 92

۶٫۵٫۲ Model Combination 94

۶٫۵٫۳ Evaluation 94

۶٫۶ A Multi-Domain Translation Model Architecture 96

۶٫۷ Summary 100

۷ Integrating Other Knowledge Sources: Multi-Engine Machine Translation 103

۷٫۱ Related Work103

۷٫۲ A Multi-Engine MT Architecture 104

۷٫۳ Translation Model Combination 105

۷٫۴ Evaluation of Multi-Engine MT 106

۷٫۴٫۱ On the Use of Perplexity for Machine-Translated Text 109

۷٫۴٫۲ Combining Out-of-domain Data and Translation Hypotheses 111

۷٫۵ Summary 112

۸ Multiword Expressions and Flexibility Features 115

۸٫۱ Introduction 116

۸٫۲ Related Work 116

۸٫۳ Learning Translations in SMT 117

۸٫۴ Flexibility Features 118

۸٫۴٫۱ Variants for Hierarchical Phrase-based Models 121

۸٫۵ Filtering Hierarchical Rule Tables 122

۸٫۶ Evaluation of Flexibility Scores 123

۸٫۶٫۱ Data and Methods 123

۸٫۶٫۲ Phrase-based Results 124

۸٫۶٫۳ Hierarchical Results 126

۸٫۷ Summary 127

۹ Conclusion and Outlook 129

Bibliography 133

۱۰ Appendix 147

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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع  Shifts of meaning in humour translation as exemplified by the Polish translation of Shrek که شامل ۴۳ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Table of contents

Introduction 2

۱٫ Theoretical part 3

۱٫۱٫ Humour 3

۱٫۱٫۱٫ The definition of humour and its types 3

۱٫۱٫۲٫ Translation theory and humour 3

۱٫۱٫۳٫ Difficulties related to humour translation 4

۱٫۱٫۴٫ Possible translation strategies in humour translation 5

۱٫۱٫۵٫ Humour untranslatability 6

۱٫۱٫۶٫ Shifts of meaning in humour translation 7

۱٫۲٫ Dubbing 8

۱٫۲٫۱٫ The definition of screen translation and dubbing 8

۱٫۲٫۲٫ Advantages of dubbing 8

۱٫۲٫۳٫ Constraints of dubbing 9

۱٫۳٫ Shrek as an example of a dubbed comedy film 11

۲٫ Analytical part 13

۲٫۱٫ Shifts of meaning 13

۲٫۲٫ Domestication 20

۲٫۳٫ Allusions 26

۲٫۴٫ Puns 35

Conclusion 39

References 40

Films under discussion 43


Introduction

Researchers present divergent opinions concerning shifts of meaning. Some

scholars regard translation shifts as a negative effect of a translation process

and criticize introducing modifications to the source text (ST). Others argue

that there are various situations when such shifts are simply impossible to avoid,

e.g. in the case of humour translation.

This thesis explores the notion of shifts of meaning in humour translation.

The study is based on a popular animated film Shrek. The film constitutes a perfect

subject for the discussion due to numerous examples of translation shifts that can be

noticed between the source and the target text (TT).

The aim of this study is to prove that shifts of meaning in the case of humour

translation in Shrek are unavoidable and even desirable, and that they result from

the specificity of dubbing and humour translation.

My analysis is based on the comparison and description of various differences

in meaning between the original English dialogues (in bold face) and the translation

by Bartosz Wierzbięta – the author of the Polish version of Shrek (underlined).

The literal translation of the source dialogues is provided in square brackets.

The thesis is divided into two chapters. In the first, theoretical part, humour

and various aspects connected with humour translation are described, and the translation

of dubbed films is examined. The analytical part consists of four subsections, in which

shifts of meaning in the Polish translation of Shrek are discussed and the possible

………reasons for introducing them are analysed

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دانلود پایان نامه ارشد مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع The Role of Translation in the Production of International Print News که شامل ۲۴۷ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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The Role of Translation in the Production of International Print News
Three Case Studies in the Language Direction Spanish to English
Abstract
Translation has become a key, albeit hidden factor in the success of international news as a
marketable commodity and one that is not overtly recognised by journalists. However,
despite the important socio-political role played by translation in the global circulation of
news, general principles governing processes of translation in its production have received
scant attention from both Media and Translation Studies researchers
The core to this study is to explore the complex set of processes that occur in the
translation of political news, and to discover what exactly happens at various points in regard
to who translates, what is translated, where it is translated and by whom it is translated. A
further goal is to ascertain the extent to which trained competent translators are involved, as
opposed to linguistically competent journalists, or, if that is not the case, whether indeed the
former should be involved in processes of news translation.
From a translation perspective the study explores the practice of newswriters
complying with common journalistic strategies such as simplification and reframing to suit
the needs of their readership for the maintenance of dominant political or cultural ideologies.
It also examines the extent to which disregard for, and removal from, original context, as well
as over- or under-emphasis of particular terms or phrases actually happens in translated news
texts in the Spanish-English context, and the effect that this may have at the point of
reception by the new readership.
By comparing three sub-corpora of journalistic source and target texts through critical
discourse analysis, and by taking into account translation processes through ethnographic
research in international news outlets, the ultimate goal is to identify the causes that can
trigger textual manipulation. Using three case studies comprising political news events that
were originally reported in Spanish at the source of the events, and which were subsequently
reported in UK and US national newspapers, the study investigates the extent to which
transformations occur through translation in the representation of political news events, how
they might occur, who is involved in the process and what effect any transformations might
have on readers.


Table of Contents

Introduction

۱٫۱ Aims, Rationale and Relevance of this Study 4

۱٫۲ Methodological Framework 7

۱٫۳ Research Questions 9

۱٫۴ Chapter Outline 13

۲٫۱ News Translation in Translation Studies – a Theoretical Framework 17

۲٫۱٫۱ Functionalist Approaches 20

۲٫۱٫۲ The “Cultural Turn” in Translation Studies 24

۲٫۱٫۳ Lefevere’s Theory of Rewriting 27

۲٫۱٫۴ Descriptive Translation Studies 30

۲٫۱٫۵ Defining ‘News Translation’ ۳۴

۲٫۲ Globalisation and the Media 41

۲٫۲٫۱ News Agencies as Agents of Globalisation 41

۲٫۲٫۲ Transparency versus Invisibility 44

۲٫۲٫۳ Homogeneity and Diversity in the Circulation of News 46

۲٫۳ Translation in the Production of International News 51

۲٫۳٫۱ The News Gathering and Dissemination Process 52

۲٫۳٫۲ Translation and the Translator in News Gathering and Dissemination 58

۲٫۳٫۳ The Processes Involved in Textual Transformation 65

۲٫۳٫۴ Regulatory Processes in the Dissemination of International News 68

۲٫۳٫۵ Translator and Translation Competence in Media Contexts 73

۲٫۴ The Discourse of News 83

۲٫۴٫۱ News as a Social Construct 84

۲٫۴٫۲ Ideologies in the Discourse of News Reports 87

Research Methodology 97

۳٫۱ Research Type 98

۳٫۲ Research Models 99

۳٫۳ Data Collection 102

۳٫۴ Case Study as a Research Tool 104

۳٫۵ Field Research 105

۳٫۶ Data Analysis 109

۳٫۷ Translation-Orientated Approaches to Text and Discourse Analysis 109

۳٫۸ What is Critical Discourse Analysis? 114

۳٫۹ Theoretical Objections to the Use of CDA in Translated Texts 122

۳٫۱۰ The Application of CDA in this Study 126

Case Studies and Analysis 133

۴٫۱ Case Study One – Manuel Zelaya’s ‘Referendum’ ۱۳۶

۴٫۲ Case Study Two – Prospecting for Oil in the Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas 167

۴٫۳ Case Study Three – Spain’s Economic Crisis 177

۴٫۴ Conclusions from Case Studies 185

۵ Findings and Conclusions 193

۵٫۱ Main Findings 193

۵٫۲ Challenges and Limitations of the Study 203

۵٫۳ Further Research 206

Bibliography 213

Appendices 231

۱ Questions for Unstructured Interviews – Newspaper and Agency Journalists 231

۲ Questions for Unstructured Interviews – Newspaper Editors 233

۳ Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study One 234

۴ Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study Two 239

۵ Newspaper Extracts Pertaining to Case Study Three 240

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دانلود پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد مترجمی زبان انگلیسی با موضوع ترجمه عبارات اصطلاحی از انگلیسی به عربی که شامل ۱۲۴ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Translating Idiomatic Expressions from English into Arabic

Table of Contents
Chapter
Subject
Page
Thesis Title 0
Authorization i
Thesis Committee Decision ii
Acknowledgments iii
Dedication v
Table of contents vi
List of Tables x
List of Appendices xi
English Abstract xii
Arabic Abstract xv
Chapter One
Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 6
1.4 Questions of the Study 6
1.5 Significance of the Study 7
1.6 Limitations of the Study 8
1.7 Definition of Terms 8
Chapter Two
Review of Related Literature 9
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 Review of Theoretical Literature 9
2.1.1 Translation, Culture and Types of Idiomatic Expressions 9
2.1.2 Difficulties Encountered in Translating Idiomatic Expressions 16
2.1.3 Techniques and Strategies Used in Translating Idiomatic Expressions 20
2.2 Empirical Studies 25
2.2.1 Studies Related to Cultural and Idiomatic Expressions, and Other Difficulties in Translation 26
2.2.2 Studies Related to Strategies and Techniques for Translating Idiomatic Expressions 32
Chapter Three
Methods and Procedures 35
3.0 Introduction 35
3.1 Population and Sample of the Study 35
3.2 Instruments of the Study 37
3.2.1 Translation Test 37
3.2.2 Interviews 39
3.3 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments 39
3.3.1 Validity of the Instruments 39
3.3.2 Reliability of the Instruments 40
3.4 Data Collection and Statistical Analysis 40
3.5 Procedures 41
Chapter Four
Results of the Study 43
4.0 Introduction 43
4.1 Results Related to the First Question 43
4.2 Views of Students and Translation Experts about the Major Challenges that M.A Students Encountered in Translating Idiomatic Expressions 63
4.3 Results Related to the Second Question 68
4.4 Results Related to the Third Question 71
Chapter Five
Discussion and Recommendations 75
5.0 Introduction 75
5.1 Discussion Related to the Findings of the First Question 75
5.2 Discussion Related to the Findings of the Second Question 79
5.3 Discussion Related to the Findings of the Third Question 82
5.4 Conclusions 84
5.5 Recommendations 86
5.6 Suggestions for future research 88
References 89
Appendices (A-H)

List of Tables Number Title Page Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of the Sample 36 Table 2
Participants’ Translation Performance in the English-Arabic Test 44
List of Appendices
Appendix
Title
Page
Appendix A
MEU Letter of Permission 95
Appendix B
Interviewed Experts 96
Appendix C
Validation Committee 97
Appendix D
The Validation Letter 98
Appendix E
Demographic Data Questionnaire 99
Appendix F
English-Arabic Translation Test 100
Appendix G
Semi- Structured Interview Questions for Experts 106
Appendix H
Semi- Structured Interview Questions for M.A Students 107

Abstract
This study aimed at investigating the challenges that M.A students encounter when translating idiomatic expressions. Particularly, it aimed at answering the following questions:
1- What are the major challenges that M.A students encounter in translating idiomatic expressions?
2- What factors cause such challenges?
3- What recommendations can be suggested to handle these challenges?
To achieve the goal of this study, the researcher selected a purposive sample that comprised 40 M.A students who were enrolled in the M.A program in two Jordanian Universities (i.e. Middle East University and Petra University)
during the second semester 2013/2014. The researcher designed a translation test that consisted of 20 statements which M.A students were asked to translate from English to Arabic. Each statement contained an idiomatic expression based on O’Dell and McCarthy’s (2010) categorization of idioms namely: proverbs, metaphors, similes, and binomials. These statements represented different fields i.e. social, sports, scientific, media, educational, economic, political, and business. The researcher also conducted semi-structured interviews with students and experts in the field of translation to compile more information.
The results revealed that M.A students encounter different kinds of challenges when translating idiomatic expressions. These challenges are mostly related to inability to find a target language equivalent and unawareness of pragmatic, formal and semantic characteristics of idiomatic expressions, unawareness of the cultural differences between English and Arabic and unawareness of idioms’ categorization namely (proverbs, metaphor, similes and binomials).
Students and experts elaborated on the factors behind these challenges and through their answers it is clear that lack of awareness in the source language cultural patterns (traditions, habits, customs, ceremonies,
entertainments and social patterns and religious background), unawareness of the cultural differences, misusing the appropriate technique and the tendency to use literal translation that is in most cases not successful, using the paraphrasing technique rather than giving the target language equivalent and the use of idiomatic expressions in colloquial rather than standard language are the main reasons behind the failure in translating idiomatic expressions .

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دانلود پایان نامه دکترا به زبان انگلیسی با موضوع Lexical semantics and knowledge representation in multilingual sentence generation که شامل ۱۷۰ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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Abstract
Lexical semantics and knowledge representation in multilingual sentence generation
Manfred Stede
Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Computer Science University of Toronto 1996
This thesis develops a new approach to automatic language generation that focuses on the need
to produce a range of dierent paraphrases from the same input representation. One novelty of
the system is its solidly grounding representations of word meaning in a background knowledge
base, which enables the production of paraphrases stemming from certain inferences, rather
than from purely lexical relationships alone.
The system is designed in such a way that the paraphrasing mechanism extends naturally to
a multilingual generator; specifically, we will be concerned with producing English and German
sentences. The focus of the system is on lexical paraphrases, and one of the contributions of the
thesis is in identifying, analyzing and extending relevant linguistic research so that it can be
used to handle the problems of lexical semantics in a language generation system. The lexical
entries are more complex than in previous generators, and they separate the various aspects
of word meaning, so that dierent ways of paraphrasing can be systematically related to the
dierent motivations for saying a sentence in a particular way. One result of accounting for
lexical semantics in this fashion is a formalization of a number of verb alternations, for which
a generative treatment is given.
While the actual choice of one paraphrase as the best-suited utterance in a given situation is
not a focal point of the thesis, two dimensions of preferring a variant of a sentence are discussed:
that of assigning salience to the dierent elements of the sentence, and that of connotational or
stylistic features of the utterance. These dimensions are integrated into the system, and it can
thus determine a preferred paraphrase from a set of alternatives.
To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, the proposed generation architecture has
been implemented as a protoype, along with a domain model that serves as the background
knowledge base for specifying the input to the generator. A range of generated examples is
…presented to show the functionality of the system

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Natural language generation . 1
1.2 Background: the TECHDOC generator . 3
1.3 Goals of this research .. 4
1.4 Overview of the research and its results . 5
1.5 Organization of the thesis . : 10
2 Lexicalization in NLG 12
2.1 Introduction .. 12
2.2 The nature of lexical items in NLP. 13
2.3 Criteria for lexical choice . : 14
2.3.1 Salience .. : 15
2.3.2 Pragmatics and style . 16
2.4 Linking concepts to lexical items. : 17
2.4.1 Discrimination nets . 17
2.4.2 Taxonomic knowledge bases and the lexicon.. 18
2.5 Placing lexicalization in the generation process . : 20
2.5.1 Lexical and other choices. : 20
2.5.2 PENMAN .. 21
2.6 Multilingual generation .. 23
2.7 Conclusions: making progress on lexicalization . : 23
3 Lexical semantics 27
3.1 Introduction .. 27
3.2 Relational theories of word meaning .. 28
3.3 Decomposition .. : 29
3.4 Denotation versus connotation.. 31
3.5 Two-level semantics .. 32
3.6 Aspect and Aktionsart .. 34
3.7 Valency and case frames .. 36
3.8 Verb alternations .. 37
3.9 Salience . . 39
3.10 Conclusions: word meaning in NLG .. 41
4 Classifying lexical variation 44
4.1 Intra-lingual paraphrases .. 44
4.2 Inter-lingual divergences .. 47
4.3 Divergences as paraphrases . 49
5 Modelling the domain 51
5.1 Building domain models for NLG. : 51
5.2 Background: knowledge representation in LOOM . 53
5.3 Ontological categories in our system .. 54
5.4 A domain model for containers and liquids . : 58
5.4.1 Objects .. : 60
5.4.2 Qualities .. 60
5.4.3 States … 60
5.4.4 Activities .. 65
5.4.5 Events … 65
6 Levels of representation: SitSpec and SemSpec 67
6.1 Finding appropriate levels of representation in NLG. : 67
6.1.1 Decision-making in sentence generation . : 68
6.1.2 A two-level approach . 70
6.2 Linguistic ontology: adapting the ‘Upper Model’ . 72
6.3 SitSpecs . . 75
6.4 SemSpecs .. : 78
7 Representing the meaning of words: a new synthesis 81
7.1 Denotation and covering .. 81
7.1.1 SitSpec templates . : 82
7.1.2 Covering .. : 85
7.1.3 Aktionsart .. : 86
7.2 Partial SemSpecs .. 87
7.2.1 Lexico-semantic combinations .. 87
7.2.2 Type shifting .. 89
7.2.3 Valency and the Upper Model .. 90
7.3 Alternations and extensions . 93
7.3.1 Alternations as meaning extensions . : 93
7.3.2 Lexical rules for alternations and extensions.. 95
7.3.3 Extension rules for circumstances . 101
7.3.4 Examples: lexical entries for verbs . : 102
7.3.5 Summary .. 104
7.4 Salience . . 105
7.5 Connotation .. 107
7.6 Summary: lexicalization with constraints and preferences .. 110
8 A new system architecture for multilingual generation 113
8.1 The computational problem . 113
8.2 Overview of the architecture . 115
8.2.1 Find lexical options . 115
8.2.2 Construct alternations and extensions .. 118
8.2.3 Establish preference ranking of options .. 119
8.2.4 Determine the complete and preferred SemSpec. 120
8.2.5 Generate sentence . : 122
8.3 Implementation of a prototype: MOOSE . 123
8.4 Embedding MOOSE in larger applications . : 125
9 Generating paraphrases 127
9.1 Verbalizing states .. 127
9.1.1 Binary states .. 127
9.1.2 Ternary states .. 128
9.2 Verbalizing activities .. 130
9.3 Verbalizing events .. : 132
9.4 Solutions to lexicalization problems. 138
10 Summary and conclusions 141
10.1 Summary of the work .. 141
10.2 Comparison to related work . 144
10.2.1 The role of the lexicon in NLG . : 144
10.2.2 Word{concept linking.. 144
10.2.3 Fine-grained lexical choices. 146
10.2.4 Paraphrasing .. 146
10.2.5 Event verbalization . : 148
10.2.6 Multilinguality and the lexicon . : 149
10.3 Contributions of the thesis . : 151
10.3.1 Lexical semantics for NLG. : 151
10.3.2 System architecture for NLG .. 152
10.3.3 Implementation .. 153
10.4 Directions for future research.. 153
Bibliography 156

List of Figures
1.1 Example of SitSpec: Jill filling a tank with water.. 6
1.2 Examples of SemSpecs and corresponding English sentences.. : 6
2.1 Lexicalization with ‘zoom schemata’ (from [Horacek 1990b]).. : 19
2.2 Small excerpt from Upper Model .. : : : 22
3.1 Taxonomy of eventualities from Bach [1986].. 35
5.1 Sample text from a Honda car manual .. 52
5.2 The top level of our ontology .. .. 55
5.3 Our classification of situation types .. : : 56
5.4 Event representation for Jill opening a wine bottle .. 57
5.5 LOOM definitions for basic ontological categories.. 59
5.6 Taxonomy of states …. : 61
5.7 LOOM definitions of binary-states .. : 62
5.8 LOOM definition of location-state .. 63
5.9 Subsumption of concepts and relations for ternary-states.. : 64
5.10 LOOM definition of path …. 65
5.11 Opening the wine bottle as transition.. : : 66
6.1 Representation levels in the generation system.. : 72
6.2 Syntax of SitSpecs …. 76
6.3 Example of situation specification as graph.. 77
6.4 Syntax of SemSpecs …. : 78
6.5 Semantic specifications and corresponding sentences .. 79
7.1 Syntax of a lexeme denotation .. .. 84
7.2 Syntax of partial SemSpecs .. .. 88
7.3 Example for type shifting …. 89
7.4 SitSpecs for sentences corresponding to configurations of to spray.. 98
7.5 Dependency of extension rules .. .. 100
7.6 Derivation of drain-configurations by extension rules .. 101
7.7 Sample lexical entries (abridged) for verbs.. : 103
8.1 Overall system architecture .. .. 116
8.2 Lexicon entries matching the SitSpec in fill{example, and their instantiations : : 118
8.3 Extension rules for fill{example, and resulting vos.. 119
8.4 The procedure for building SemSpecs (simplified).. 121
8.5 Screendump of Moose …. 124
9.1 SitSpec for water dripping from tank .. : 130
9.2 SitSpec for water rising in a tank .. : : : 132
9.3 SitSpec for Tom disconnecting the wire.. : : 134
9.4 SitSpec for Jill uncorking the bottle .. : 136
10.1 Lexicon entry for to require from ADVISOR II.. : 147
10.2 Sample CLCS and lexicon entries (abridged) from [Dorr 1993, pp. 224, 227] : : : 149

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دانلود پایان نامه دکترای زبان انگلیسی با موضوع AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF ARGUMENT STRUCTURE AND LEXICAL MAPPING THEORY FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION که شامل ۱۶۷ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF ARGUMENT STRUCTURE AND LEXICAL MAPPING THEORY FOR MACHINE TRANSLATION
Abstract
In recent work on the Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) formalism, argument
structure (a-structure) and lexical mapping theory have been used to explain many
linguistic behaviours across languages. It has been suggested that the combination
of c-structure, f-structure and a-structure might form a suitable architecture
for Universal Grammar. If this suggestion is valid, the LFG formalism would be a
suitable linguistic model for Machine Translation (MT). This thesis reports on the
investigations carried out on using a-structure and lexical mapping theory for aiding
various sub-tasks in MT. The two investigations described in this thesis are the
abilities of a-structure and lexical mapping theory to: (1) aid different kinds of lexical
and structural disambiguations involving verbs and prepositions, and (2) act
as a suitable medium for carrying out source-to-target language transfer. Based
on the results of these investigations, this thesis also gives an evaluation of how
well a-structure and lexical mapping theory can improve the existing models of
linguistic-based MT.

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Problems of Machine Translation … 3
1.1.1 Why are problems in MT vital to the application of real-life MT systems? 3
1.1.2 What makes MT so difficult? …. 4
1.1.3 Linguistic Problems ….5
1.1.4 Meaning Representation …. 7
1.2 Motivation and Aims of the Research …8
1.3 Organisation of this Thesis … 10
2 Machine Translation 12
2.1 Different Kinds of Ambiguities …. 13
2.1.1 Lexical Ambiguity … 13
2.1.2 Structural Ambiguity ….14
2.2 Different Kinds of MT Systems …. 15
2.2.1 Direct MT systems … 15
2.2.2 Indirect MT Systems ….16
2.3 Practical Use of some MT Systems ….. 18
2.3.1 Systran ….. 18
2.3.2 M´et´eo ….. 20
2.3.3 Discussion …21
2.4 Methods of Transfer ….. 22
2.5 Alternative Approaches to Machine Translation …. 24
2.5.1 Sublanguage Approach …. 25
2.5.2 Statistics-based Approach … 27
2.5.3 Example-based Approach … 28
2.6 Conclusion …..29
3 Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 32
3.1 The LFG Formalism ….. 33
3.1.1 Constituent Structure (c-structure) … 34
3.1.2 Functional Structure (f-structure) … 35
3.1.3 Semantic Structure (s-structure) …41
3.2 Lexical-Functional Grammar in Machine Translation … 43
3.2.1 Kudo and Nomura’s Lexical-Functional Transfer …. 44
3.2.2 Kaplan et al.’s approach to MT …45
3.2.3 Her et al.’s Lexical and Idiomatic Transfer …. 47
3.3 Conclusion …..51
4 Argument Structure and Lexical Mapping Theory 54
4.1 Thematic Roles …. 55
4.1.1 Agent ….. 56
4.1.2 Beneficiary, Recipient and Experiencer ….. 57
4.1.3 Instrument …61
4.1.4 Theme and Patient … 61
4.1.5 Locative …. 64
4.2 Argument Structure ….. 66
4.2.1 How to establish the a-structure(s) for a verb? ..67
4.3 Lexical Mapping Theory …. 69
4.3.1 Thematic Hierarchy ….69
4.3.2 Classification of Syntactic Functions .. 70
4.3.3 Lexical Mapping Principles ….. 71
4.3.4 Well-formedness Conditions …. 76
4.4 Lexical Mapping— A Demonstration …76
4.4.1 With the Verb ‘give’ ….۷۶
۴٫۴٫۲ With the Morpholexical Operation ‘passive’ … ۷۸
۴٫۴٫۳ With the Morpholexical Operation ‘applicative’ …. ۷۸
۴٫۵ Is A-structure another variant of Case Grammar? …. 79
4.5.1 Case Grammar …. 80
4.5.2 A-structure and Case Grammar — A Comparison …81
4.6 Conclusion …..83
5 Using A-structure and Lexical Mapping Theory for MT 84
5.1 Parsing Source Language Sentence ….. 84
5.1.1 Differentiating V + PP from Phrasal Verb + NP ..86
5.1.2 Differentiating NP with N and PP from NP + PP …. 92
5.2 Lexical Selection …. 96
5.2.1 Lexical Selection for Ergative Verbs .. 98
5.2.2 Lexical Selection for Verbs … 101
5.2.3 Lexical Selection for Phrasal Verbs … 106
5.3 Aiding Sentence Generation ….108
5.3.1 Verb Copying in Chinese … 109
5.3.2 Positioning PPs within a Chinese Sentence …. 111
5.4 Discussion …..114
5.5 Conclusion …..117
6 Dealing with the Transfer of Passive Sentences 119
6.1 Using F-structure as a medium for Transfer .. 119
6.2 Passive in English …122
6.3 Passive in Chinese ….. 126
6.4 Differences between Passive Sentences in English and in Chinese … 129
6.5 The Transfer from English passive sentences to Chinese …. 133
6.6 Discussion …..136
6.7 Conclusion …..140
7 Conclusion and FutureWork 141
7.1 Problems in Using A-structure and Lexical Mapping Theory inMT …. 141
7.1.1 No Matching Source-and-Target Language A-structures …142
7.1.2 Difficulty in Establishing Appropriate A-structures … 144
7.2 What makes this investigation successful? … 147
7.3 FutureWork ….. 148
7.3.1 Disambiguating nouns …. 149
7.3.2 Automatic extraction of a-structures from a corpus … 150
7.3.3 Reducing the processing time …. 150
7.4 Conclusion …..151

List of Figures
1.1 A Word-for-Word Translation …. 4
2.1 Typical building blocks of a transfer-based MT system ..17
2.2 Building blocks of an interlingual MT system ….. 17
2.3 Building blocks of a multilingual MT system using the interlingual approach .. 18
2.4 A dictionary entry for transferring ‘bug’ suggested by Her et al. (1994) …. 26
3.1 C-structure for the sentence “John played Mary a tune on the violin.” … ۳۴
۳٫۲ F-structure for the sentence “John tried to play the guitar.” …. ۳۶
۳٫۳ F-structure for the sentence “John played Mary a tune on the violin.” … ۳۸
۳٫۴ C-structure and F-structure for the sentence “John died.” …. ۴۱
۳٫۵ C-structure & F-structure correspondence of the sentence “John died.” .. ۴۲
۳٫۶ S-structure for the sentence “The baby fell.” … ۴۲
۳٫۷ C-structure, F-structure and S-structure correspondence of the sentence “John died.” ۴۴
۳٫۸ The correspondences between different structures for source and target languages inLFG ……. 46
3.9 A minimal f-structure for transferring the idiom “to kick the bucket” suggested by Her et al. (1994) ….. 50
5.1 Two potential c-structures for the word sequence “John played on words” … ۸۵
۵٫۲ F-structure for “John played on words.” … ۸۹
۵٫۳ F-structure for “John played on the table.” … ۸۹
۵٫۴ The lexical mapping between a-structure arguments and their corresponding syntactic functions for the sentences in Table 5.1 …. 92
5.5 A possible c-structure for “John bought a book in a bookshop in Prague.” produced
by a syntax-based parser…. 93
5.6 Another possible c-structure for “John bought a book in a bookshop in Prague.” produced by a parser…. 94
5.7 The c-structure for “John saw a girl with a dog with a telescope.” … ۹۶
۵٫۸ Examples of English ergative verbs with matching Chinese counterpart … 99
5.9 Examples of English ergative verbs with different Chinese translation in transitive and intransitive cases … 100
5.10 A-structures and sample sentences for the English verb ‘tell’ and its Chinese counterparts ….. 102
5.11 The use of a-structures for lexical selection .. 103
5.12 Some examples on lexical selection for verbs by using a-structures … 105
6.1 English and Chinese F-structures for “Mary was killed by John.”…۱۳۰
۶٫۲ English and Chinese F-structures for “Mary was killed.”…. ۱۳۱
۶٫۳ The English and Chinese equivalents of the sentence “Mary was given a book by John” …. ۱۳۲
۶٫۴ Skeleton of Chinese F-structure for “Mary was given a book by John.”.. ۱۳۵
۶٫۵ The final Chinese F-structure for “Mary was given a book by John.”… ۱۳۶
۶٫۶ Transferring English passive sentence into Chinese using a-structure and lexical
mapping theory …. 137

List of Tables
1.1 Different meanings of some nouns ….. 7
3.1 Different cases for the Czech proper noun ‘Jan’ ….۴۰
۵٫۱ Some examples of different combinations of verbs and prepositions … 88
5.2 Different Meanings of ‘look up’ …. ۱۰۷
۵٫۳ The a-structure arguments for ‘look up’ and its Chinese equivalents … 108


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