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Shock

Definition

Shock is a medical emergency in which the organs and tissues of the body are not receiving an adequate flow of blood. This deprives the organs and tissues of oxygen (carried in the blood) and allows the buildup of waste products. Shock can result in serious damage or even death.

Shock

Definition

Shock is a medical emergency in which the organs and tissues of the body are not receiving an adequate flow of blood. This deprives the organs and tissues of oxygen (carried in the blood) and allows the buildup of waste products. Shock can result in serious damage or even death.

Description

There are three stages of shock: Stage I (also called compensated, or nonprogressive), Stage II (also called decompensated or progressive), and Stage III (also called irreversible).

In Stage I of shock, when low blood flow (perfusion) is first detected, a number of systems are activated in order to maintain/restore perfusion. The result is that the heart beats faster, the blood vessels throughout the body become slightly smaller in diameter, and the kidney works to retain fluid in the circulatory system. All this serves to maximize blood flow to the most important organs and systems in the body. The patient in this stage of shock has very few symptoms, and treatment can completely halt any progression.

In Stage II of shock, these methods of compensation begin to fail. The systems of the body are unable to improve perfusion any longer, and the patient’s symptoms reflect that fact. Oxygen deprivation in the brain causes the patient to become confused and disoriented, while oxygen deprivation in the heart may cause chest pain. With quick and appropriate treatment, this stage of shock can be reversed.

In Stage III of shock, the length of time that poor perfusion has existed begins to take a permanent toll on the body’s organs and tissues. The heart’s functioning continues to spiral downward, and the kidneys usually shut down completely. Cells in organs and tissues throughout the body are injured and dying. The endpoint of Stage III shock is the patient’s death.

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دانلود مقاله با موضوع Textual reduction in translated dialogue in film versus literary fiction که شامل ۲۸ صفحه و بشرح زیر میباشد:

نوع فایل :فرمت قابل ویرایش Word

Abstract

By exploring the correlation between textual reduction and length of utterance as well as surveying what grammatical elements are omitted to cause textual reduction, this paper seeks to establish what mechanisms are at play in the translation of dialogue in film vs. fiction. The need for economy of translation found in subtitling might suggest that textual reduction is more widespread in subtitles than in translated fiction.

On the basis of two small-size corpora, it is shown that the longer the utterance the greater the possibility for reductions in both modes of translation. However, and perhaps not surprisingly, there is less textual reduction in translated dialogue in fiction overall.

Moreover, translated fiction seems to allow longer utterances than subtitles before reduction takes place. With regard to the elements that are omitted, similar patterns can be found, although subtitles show a clearer tendency for interpersonal elements to be omitted


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