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  • Fresh cows need to calve in with few metabolic problems.
  • Fresh cows also need to eat aggressively as soon as possible and have few sub-clinical metabolic problems.
  • Goals of the far-off dry period include maintaining body condition, maintaining protein and muscle reserves, rejuvenation of the rumen wall, and provision of needed minerals and vitamins.
  • During the pre-fresh period, nutrient requirements increase while dry matter intake decreases. Ration nutrient concentration must increase. The mineral balance of the ration is critical. The rumen microbes and rumen papillae also need to be adjusted to higher levels of concentrates. Ration palatability is important at this time.
  • A fresh cow’s energy needs usually exceed energy supply. Any steps taken to reduce the degree of sub-clinical ketosis will result in increased dry matter intake, increased milk production, and better reproduction. Special fresh cow groups help producers to target time, high quality forages, and feed additives to those cows who will respond the most. Fresh-cow feed additives include calcium propionate, choline, niacin, and yeast culture.
  • Updated with information from the 2001 NRC

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